Water is an indispensable resource for living organisms and humans.
Its importance lies in the following aspects:
1. It is a source of life can not live without it or plants or animals or humans.
2. It is essential in everyday life:
· Use home: in the house for washing, cooking, water, etc..
· Use Industrial tanning industry, food manufacturing, cleaning, electricity, etc.
· Use agriculture: agriculture for irrigation.
· Use livestock: in agricultural watering pets.
• In aquaculture: to raise fish and other species.
· Use medicine: the medicine to cure diseases. The thermal and medicinal waters are abundant in Peru. For example, the Inca Baths in Cajamarca Churín baths in Lima and the bathrooms of Jesus in Arequipa, etc. Mineral waters are for drinking and consumption of mineral-containing medicinal type. The main ones are San Mateo, Socosani, Jesus, etc..
· Use sports: in sports such as swimming, surfing, water skiing, canyoning, canoeing, etc.
Municipal · Use: in cities to irrigate parks and gardens.
The irregular distribution of water in Peru causes various conflicts or problems, highlighting the following:
· Problems caused by excessive water runoff and rainfall. Floods: During the summer months rainfall occurring in the country. In certain circumstances, when these are extraordinary rainfall, rivers top their banks and flood farming areas and villages. Natural erosion: rainfall and river run-off dragged the fertile layer of soil and impoverished.
· Problems caused by water scarcity. They refer to the aridity of much of the country, and droughts, which occur in certain regions due to anomalies in precipitation.
· Problems caused by poor water management, through negative actions by human activities that generate erosion and pollution. Pollution is a serious and growing problem, and will be treated separately. The destruction of watersheds and vegetation cover affects the availability and flow of water.
Water is one of the key natural resources and is one of the four basic resources that support the development, along with air, land and energy.
Water is the most abundant chemical compound on the planet and is indispensable for the development of life. It consists of an oxygen atom and two hydrogen atoms and its chemical formula is H2O. Found in nature in solid, liquid or gas.
Pure water is a renewable resource, but may become so contaminated by human activities, it is no longer useful but harmful, of poor quality.
The assessment of water quality has had a slow development. Until the late nineteenth century did not recognize water as a source of many infectious diseases, yet today, the importance of both quantity and water quality is beyond doubt.
The importance that has claimed the water quality has highlighted that the factors or agents that cause pollution to her are: pathogens, wastes require oxygen, inorganic and organic chemicals, plant nutrients that cause excessive growth of aquatic plants sediments or suspended material, radioactive substances and heat.
Water pollution is the degree of contamination, which can cause adverse health effects of a representative number of people during predictable periods of time.
It is considered that the water is contaminated, when it can be used for any use which would give him in its natural state or are altered its chemical, physical, biological and / or composition. Overall, the water is polluted when it loses its potability for daily consumption or for use in domestic, industrial or agricultural.
To avoid the consequences of using contaminated water have developed mechanisms for early control of pollution. There are rules that govern the allowable ranges of pollution, which seek to ensure that the water used is not harmful. Every country should have an institution that is responsible for such supervision. In the U.S. there are parameters outlined in the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) that rule in relation to the specifications of all tipoen drinking water in the area are taken into account microbiological levels of alert and action levels.
Despite the control and prevention has been pursued in many countries, are reported coliform-contaminated water which causes water quality is not desired, although many countries have a lot of water, increasing population, pollution industries, the excessive use of agrochemicals, untreated sewage and soil erosion from deforestation mean that this resource is scarce. In Guatemala every year there are 380 million cubic meters of sewage and of those, only 19 million are treated. The rest comes with all its pollution load to rivers and lakes.
The supply of freshwater is declining globally, 1.2 billion people lack access to safe drinking water source. The contaminated water diseases kill more than 4 million children a year and 20% of all freshwater aquatic species are extinct or in danger of disappearing