Archive for the ‘Greenhouse Effect’ Category
Activities reducing emissions from greenhouse gases-GHG-, usually known as mitigation, these cover a range of measures, policies and technologies implemented in the different sectors of the economy and human activity in general, resulting in a fewer tons of GHG released into the atmosphere, either by reducing the increase in emissions or increasing terrestrial carbon storage as a result of the implementation of mitigation actions.
Currently there are a variety of activities to reduce GHG emissions applying to sectors such as energy, transportation, waste, agriculture, forestry and industry, which are linked to the development of international and national policies on climate change. Mitigation activities incorporate technological changes in production systems, efficient use of raw materials and fuels, fuel switching, avoiding GHG emissions from different sources, and the expansion, protection and conservation of forest ecosystems. Additional mitigation measures are conceived as complementary to the objectives of a country’s development, which can strengthen social programs, economic and environmental.
Below are the mitigation options proposed by the sectoral level Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change-IPCC-:
Energy efficiency improvements to the transport sector,
industry and energy supply.
Replacement fuels in the transport sector and
as use of alternative energy.
Expansion of forest management and protection to existing ones.
Bioenergy production from agricultural residues and new crops.
Husbandry associated with higher quality pasture
nutrition and cultivation of trees.
Waste management associated with the recovery of methane,
Some of the above activities can be geared to the market in certificates of emission reduction (CER’s) under the Clean Development Mechanism-CDM, the Kyoto Protocol, which allows the participation of the Annex I of the Framework Convention United Nations Climate Change to meet their emission reduction targets (for the first commitment period covering the period 2008 – 2012) with the participation of an Annex I country that has no emissions reduction commitments, such as the case of Colombia. These CER, s offset the emission reduction commitments made by Annex 1 countries and the country supplier of CERs, s will benefit from technology transfer, and implementation of practices that contribute to sustainable development.
To make projects under the CDM is a need for methodologies approved by the executive board of the mechanism for formulation, estimation of the amount of emission reductions generated by the project, assessment of environmental impacts, and consultation different actors and / or stakeholders. Just as the offeror’s national approval and have the validation and monitoring of an independent audit process that concludes with the issue of emissions reduction certificates CERs.
Earth due to gravity on its surface retains air and seawater, and to set in motion the air and the sea in relation to the planet’s surface energy is needed as a primary source is the sun, which emits flow in all directions, visible light or near visible radiation in the areas of ultraviolet and infrared.
Earth’s atmospheric greenhouse effect associated with radiation processes going on inside. radiation is a form of energy, and is transmitted only in a vacuum.
Other forms of energy transmission in the natural environment are conduction and convection. In conduction heat spreads through the solid (propagation of heat from the surface soil to a lower level). In a fluid (gas and liquid) heat transfer by convection process through which a relatively warm part of the fluid, moving, and then mixed and integrated into a relatively cool environment.