Archive for the ‘Waste Management’ Category
Many times, when speaking of Mining pollutant, as well as other ways of obtaining resources and industrialization often speak of Pollution Control, considering this term as simply the allocation of an organization or body control, as in the if EPA Mercury Pollution, the U.S. agency in charge of environmental controls, although this terminology covers many actions that must be taken into account.
These tasks should only be carried out at the time of wing activity is underway, but must be taken before, during and after each project, but of course, practice makes us see that not always the case as has been planned. Read the rest of this entry »
Despite this problematica, feasible measures exist to reduce the impact of landfills:
1. Trash compaction can reduce energy costs and economic transportation and disposal. With today’s technology can reduce waste volume by 60%.
2. Pneumatic conveying systems are available that can reduce density in areas of high costs.
3. The problem of leachate can be reduced with proper planning of the location of the landfill away from aquifers and surface water bodies. Parallel systems are essential to capture leachate drainage and undergo treatment. This can be: Read the rest of this entry »
As a result of treatment received reduces the environmental impact of uncontrolled dumping. By coating the waste with soil reduces the proliferation of pests and odor emissions. Since there is no uncontrolled waste burning reduces air pollution. However, there are still many drawbacks:
1. Occupation of the territory. Landfills occupy large tracts of land relatively close to urban centers. By some estimates the waste produced by a population of 10,000 people a year would occupy an area of ??one hectare to 1.2 m deep. The greater the distance increases transport costs increase proportionately and emissions of greenhouse gases produced in transport.
2. Landfills often occupy valuable ecosystems. Occasionally, moist areas of high ecological value have become landfills. Read the rest of this entry »
Once all the other treatments there is still a fraction of the waste called rejection, which could not be recycled or recovered, and whose final destination is the landfill.
A sanitary landfill is considered controlled when taking measures to avoid to be harmful, disruptive or cause damage to the environment.
Depression consists of a natural or artificial terrain in which are dumped, compacted and covered with soil daily accumulated debris. Basically it is a biological treatment of waste. Read the rest of this entry »
The valuation has a number of advantages:
- Reduction of waste volume by up to 90%.
- Energy recovery.
- The ashes are more stable than the starting waste.
Energy recovery from waste is getting energy from burning. The calorific value of waste is variable, in the case of hydrocarbon plastics is estimated to be comparable to that of the oil with some environmental benefits as not to generate sulfur oxides, which cause acid rain. However, the combustion of PVC generates a 50% energy than before. Read the rest of this entry »
Incineration of waste is widespread in some countries like Denmark, which burned up to 56% of MSW. The Netherlands and Sweden, 30% incinerated and the United States only 16%. In our country there are 22 incinerators that burn a 6% waste.
Incineration is the total oxidation of the excess waste in air at temperatures above 850 ° C according to European standards. It is done in ovens or not appropriate to use the energy produced in which case we speak of energy recovery.
The elements of an incineration of municipal waste are: Read the rest of this entry »
Treatment of the carton.
They are recycled in two ways:
- Recycling set. Resulting in an agglomerated material called Tecta ®.
- Recycled separately. Prey components independently.
In the latter separate the cellulose fibers of polyethylene and aluminum in a hidropulper by rubbing. After the procedure is flushed from the bottom hidropulper Through a filter that lets the water and cellulose fiber.
With the recovery of it was recycled to 80% by weight of the container. To get the rest can be recovered jointly obtaining a reinforced polyethylene pellets aluminum. This residue is also used as fuel in cement kilns, since polyethylene is a good fuel and supplies the oxidized aluminum bauxite, cement ingredient. Read the rest of this entry »
Treatment of paper and cardboard.
Recovery consists of cellulose fibers in aqueous solutions by separation of the surfactants are incorporated in order to remove the ink. The ink remains on the surface of the bath and can be separated easily.
After removing the ink, the suspension is subjected to a drying fibers on a flat surface to recover. After they passed through rollers that flatten and compact, finally leaving the sheet of recycled paper.
Treatment of metals.
Tinned steel containers, better known as tin, are perfectly recyclable, are used in the manufacture of other containers or scrap in steel foundries detinning after being tin. All recovered steel is recycled by the needs of the mills. The process of recycling of tin reduces energy consumption in a very notable. Read the rest of this entry »
Plastic containers can undergo three types of processes.
- Mechanical recycling.
- Chemical recycling.
- Energy recovery.
The first is to chop the material to enter it later in an extrusion machine to mold-granceadora later by traditional methods. Only be applied to thermoplastics, which are those that melt by the action of temperature. It has two fundamental problems. The first is that the plastic used and loses some of its properties makes it necessary to use in the manufacture of other products with less requirements. The second is the difficulty in separating the different types of plastics. This will have developed different systems. Read the rest of this entry »
Organic materials are subjected to two kinds of processes:
- Anaerobic process. Biomethanation.
- Aerobic process. Composting.
The first, also known as anaerobic digestion, is an artificially accelerated biological process that takes place in oxygen-poor conditions or in total absence of organic substrates. The result is a gas mixture consisting of 99% of methane and carbon dioxide and 1% ammonia and hydrogen sulfide. The fuel gas, methane, produces energy.
Composting is the biological transformation of organic matter known as humus compost products, and used as fertilizer. Is performed in the presence of oxygen and humidity, pH and temperature controlled. Read the rest of this entry »